In the above painting by Turner a muted desaturated colour palette of blues, yellows, and reds creates a moody atmosphere, and helps emphasize the stormy scene taking place. As well as evoke feelings of bleakness. This is further enhanced by the low light in the painting, with a sort of spot light from the opening in the clouds landing on the point of interest in the painting (the ship and waves).
Through a use of composition, contrast and lighting Turner leads the viewer through the painting giving them glimpses of various details before they are taken to a new part of the image. This is storytelling in a painting essentially, demonstrating that one of the keys to effectively evoking feelings (a stimulus) in the viewer is to tell them a story. The artist is taking them on a journey, essentially they are trying get the viewer involved in the work so that they are emotionally invested in the piece.
To summarise an artist uses composition, colour, lighting, tone, form, value, and storytelling in order to evoke a visual stimulus in the viewer. The artist can then use a combination of style, mark making, texture - in traditional media this can be actual texture which adds a form of physical stimuli, scale, levels of detail, and other methods of picture making in order to add other visual stimuli to the piece.